by Kat Griffin Kat Griffin

Graphite, a crystalline form of carbon, has garnered significant interest in the military sector due to its unique combination of properties. Known for its excellent thermal and electrical conductivity, high lubricity, and outstanding resistance to heat and corrosion, graphite stands out as a versatile material for various military applications. Its ability to perform under extreme conditions makes it ideal for components in advanced weaponry, aerospace engineering, and electronic warfare systems.

In 2021, President Joe Biden signed an executive order aimed at strengthening critical US supply chains. Graphite was identified as one of four minerals considered essential to the nation’s “national security, foreign policy and economy.”
Graphite is:

    • 1 of 14 listed minerals for which the US is 100% import dependent.
    • 1 of 9 listed minerals meeting all six of the industrial/defense sector indicators identified by the US government report.
    • 1 of 4 listed minerals for which the US is 100% import-dependent while meeting all 6 industrial/defense sector indicators.
    • 1 of 3 listed minerals which meet all industrial/defense sector indicators

Military and Defense Uses

A report from the Hague Centre for Strategic Studies highlights that aluminum and natural graphite are the two most used materials in the defense industry. These materials are commonly found in a wide range of military hardware, including aircraft, helicopters, aircraft and helicopter carriers, amphibious assault ships, corvettes, offshore patrol vessels, frigates, submarines, tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, artillery, and missiles.

Graphite in Firearms

Graphite is a game-changer in firearms technology. Imagine a soldier relying on their weapon in extreme conditions – graphite makes this possible. Used in gun barrels, bolt carriers, and suppressors, graphite’s high lubricity significantly reduces friction and wear, essential for the longevity of gun barrels that endure high temperatures and pressures during firing. Graphite-based lubricants ensure smooth operation, reducing maintenance needs. This technology isn’t just theoretical – specific firearms with graphite components showcase improved accuracy, reliability, and extended service life, proving graphite’s practical benefits in the field.

Graphite in Aircraft and Helicopters

The aerospace sector leverages graphite composites extensively in airframe and structural components. The integration of graphite helps achieve significant weight reduction, leading to improved fuel efficiency and maneuverability of aircraft and helicopters. Graphite’s excellent thermal conductivity aids in effective heat dissipation, particularly in high-stress areas such as engine components and leading edges. Military aircraft like the F-22 Raptor and the Eurofighter Typhoon have utilized graphite composites to enhance their performance, underscoring the material’s critical role in modern aviation technology.

Graphite in Submarines and Naval Vessels

Graphite is utilized in submarine hulls and other structural components due to its exceptional stealth and durability properties. Its application in submarine hulls helps reduce acoustic signatures, enhancing stealth capabilities essential for modern naval operations. Cooling systems and power management also use graphite due to its excellent thermal and electrical conductivity. Case studies of advanced naval vessels, such as the Virginia-class submarines, highlight the strategic advantages gained from incorporating graphite materials in their construction and systems.

Graphite in Artillery and Missiles

In artillery and missile systems, graphite components play a pivotal role in enhancing performance and reliability. Graphite’s superior thermal management and electrical conductivity are crucial for missile guidance systems, ensuring precise and accurate targeting. In artillery, graphite is utilized in barrels and other critical components to endure the extreme temperatures and pressures generated during firing. This application enhances the durability and longevity of the equipment. These applications demonstrate graphite’s ability to meet the stringent demands of modern military technology.

Emerging Technologies and Future Trends

Innovations in graphite-based materials continue to drive advancements in military applications. The development of nanocomposites and advanced manufacturing techniques opens new possibilities for utilizing graphite in cutting-edge defense technologies. Potential future uses include next-generation weapon systems, enhanced protective gear, and advanced electronic warfare systems. As research and development in graphite materials progress, the military sector stands to benefit. The ongoing evolution of this versatile material will enhance various military applications.


Graphite plays an important role in military applications due to its unique properties and strategic value, making it critical for enhancing the performance and reliability of defense systems. Continued research and development in graphite-based materials are essential for maintaining technological superiority and addressing future challenges in national security, underscoring the need for ongoing investment in innovation as the military sector evolves.